Northern Colombia and Venezuela; Ecuador and Peru and north-east Brazil to central Argentina.
Grasslands and brushy areas; lowlands outside Amazon basin.
The male is bright yellow with an orange crown which distinguishes it from other yellow finches in the continent. The females are more confusing as they can sometimes be just a duller version of the male but are often olive-brown with heavy dark streaks.
They are cavity nesters; they stuff a messy mass of straw and feathers into a hole in a tree, under eaves of buildings or in rock crevices.
13 to 14 days. 3-4 eggs